Lighting you Dolls House Using the Copper Tape wiring method

Electrical outages is a common problem especially during summer season because the weather is too hot but electrician Brisbane 24 hours never fail us. Lighting your dolls house can be one of the most rewarding aspects of building and owning a dolls house. The use of working lights, fires and even televisions can really add life to your house and make it a centre piece of the room in which it is housed.

The use of copper tape to light your dolls house is just one of the methods that can be used (others will be discussed in future articles).This method uses thin strips of self adhesive copper tape to conduct electricity around your house.

The first stage is to decide on the location of your dolls house lights. The socket should be removed from the end of each light and a small hole drilled to allow the wire to pass through (in this case to the back of the house). For ceiling light the hole should be drilled through the ceiling into the room upstairs and then out of the back of this room. This way wires can be covered over with carpeting etc. For wall lights that are not on the back wall these too can be trailed up the wall and then out to the back from the room above (small groves can be made in the walls to hide the wire and keep a smooth surface for decorating).

Next we need to decide on the position of the copper tape. For a front opening dolls house this would be the back of the house. The copper tape is laid down in two strips that run parallel to each other (they must not touch or they will short circuit). Where the copper tape overlaps use masking tape between the two tapes to insulate. Tape should be positioned so that the lighting wires can be easily connected and so that the wire creates a circuit.

Once the light has been installed the wire on the outside should be cut to the appropriate length to allow connection to the copper tape without lots of excess wire. To connect the wire to the copper tape separate the wire into two strands, strip the plastic coating off and solder one to either side of the copper tape circuit taking care that the copper cores do not touch.

Plug in the transformer and check that each light is working as you go – don’t wait till the end to try a figure out which light isn’t working!

While creating lighting circuit for your dolls house is relatively straight forward it should be remembered that we are working with an electrical circuit and must follow safe practices. Remember to always use the correct transformer for the job and NEVER connect straight to the mains.

How to Create a Nice Piece of Fine Art?

In an attempt to learn how to create masterpieces, many animatics artist Sydney imitate famous masters. “A person who follows others never overtakes them, while a person who don’t know how to work is never able to take advantage of other people’s works”, – these are the words of Michelangelo. Think about it and do not look for recipes of mixing paints and “correct” ways of creating fine art. Here is the secret: you should educate yourself and then try to find your own unique way. These few tips will point you in the right direction.

1. Study the theory.

Learn the basics of painting: composition, perspective, light and shadow, color theory. This will give you a strong foundation for creating your paintings. Actually, without knowing all this you won’t be able to move any further. So take your time and do some reading before getting to work.

2. Never start with details.

In the process of creation, painting moves from general to specific. First, determine the height and width of your composition and try to balance them. That way you will define the borders of your future painting. Then lay in the main colors to set up your basic palette. Thin lines, subtle shades and small accents should be added at later stages.

3. Holistic approach.

Oil painting is never made “piece by piece”, it is created holistically. Develop the ability to harmoniously balance the parts of the image – in proportions, in tones and colors, etc. Do not be too enthusiastic about one object or fragment. The picture is not painted from one corner to another: you should accurately establish all parts of the picture. Your work should look solid at any stage of its creation.

4. Try to paint without stopping.

Oil paint dries long enough, try to turn this drawback into advantage. This characteristic allows you to move wet paint around the canvas creating color gradation. However, if the paint is completely dry, you can dissolve it. Use special or improvised substances (a slice of onion or garlic). You will be able to continue the work without any worry about color fading. This is all about craft, but do not forget about art. Many famous painters create their canvas art in several sessions. There is a concept of “multi-layer painting”: the painting is created in several stages with new ideas occurring at each of them. As a result, the picture remains “open” during the entire painting process.

5. Materials and tools.

Except brushes artists use a variety of materials and techniques: sponges, palette knifes, dusters and even fingers. Incorporating different kinds of them in your work will help you achieve unexpected effects and greatly diversity your artistic manner. You can also try other painting surfaces than regular canvas – this will give new feel and texture to your works.

Finger Food Catering Brisbane Can Help An Event Planner

As an event planner for finger food and canapes you have got the exclusive possibility of directing the event plans of people, small businesses and event corporate entities. The demands these places on a party can be normally overwhelming, which is why most of these individuals seek the expert aid of your services.

Though, even the most experienced and trained event planner could have difficulties in meeting the expectations of a client, which is why you must take advantage of every opportunity you can access to accelerate your business. One choice which will prove invaluable to your efforts is the chance that exists with Finger Food Catering. With this resource at your fingertips, you will discover an invaluable catering solution to meet the requirements of nearly any event.

For the individual event, one of the prime factors which impact their event decisions refers to the budget they have and getting the most out of every option. A sit down catered event can normally be a huge strain on that budget, as not just do you require tables, seating and place settings for each guest, you have to even accommodate the palette interests of each individual. When you access the resources which are offered through finger food, you would be able to find a food serving option which will save you a tremendous amount of cash. With the customizable options which are available with this service, you will be able to meet the palette demands of any guest, whilst also saving a substantial quantity that can be directed elsewhere.

Finger Food Catering can also be a huge asset to use when attempting to meet the event demands of a small business or corporate entity. Unless you are planning an awards ceremony event, the idea of sitting and eating a meal provides no real benefits to any event. On several situations these business events are designed to either aid employees interact through the use of a social event or to build relationships with customers and investors through social interaction. Neither of these goals is achieved by making individuals sit down at scattered tables for an hour to eat a meal. When you take benefit of finger food as your catering representative, you would have the resources necessary to keep foods circulating all through the room as the event goals are attained with continuous social interaction.

There are several advantages that can be achieved with the help of a finger food catering, but many event planners do not recognize this. In reality, this unique catering service creates a businesses or person’s greatest opportunity to achieve the goals they desired from their event, whether it is through saving money or in the continuous flow of social interaction.

Since the beginning they’ve gone on to provide quality finger food catering to thousands of party functions and events across Melbourne and now Geelong.

Health & Psychological Issues That May Create Disturbance In Pilates Practice

Pilates has become one of the remarkable form of exercises across the globe. People have lots of queries and confusion regarding it. Reformer Pilates experts in Adelaide are here with some useful information. Regular sessions for dynamic Pilates manly will reshape your body & create a lean, strong, toned physique; transforming you from the inside out.

Joint Pain and Headache

There may be several reasons for joint pain or headache. You may be enduring it as you don’t have time to visit your doctor and to treat this issue. And you are doing so because you don’t know its consequences. If you leave these ailments for longer, they would become serious and would make you suffer more. In addition to that, if you are thinking to join a Pilates class, then it would also create issues over there also.

Nerve Issues

When you are planning to learn the art of Pilates, you need to have a good hold on your nervous system. It should be strong enough to endure all the pains during the sessions. But, if you have issues with that, you need to think once again before enrolling for this class. You can discuss with a doctor about it and can start treatment also.

Tension, Worry and Anxiety

Unless and until you have mental peace, you can’t concentrate on this learning. And if you are unable to focus, you can’t learn moves and the chance of getting hurt would also be high. So, if you are suffering from tension, worry or anxiety, first of all, get rid of these troubles and then start doing Pilates. You can practice yoga and meditation to get your mental peace back.

Lack of Sleep and Tiredness

Due to hectic life and busy schedule most of us can’t have enough sleep. If this is your story also then you may know its results. You would feel extremely exhausted all through the day. It is true that Pilates would fill you up with energy, but you need to be able to receive it also.

Excess Body Weight

Pilates is a good exercise to cut your body fat. But, if you are carrying excess body weight, then you may face difficulty to do the postures. So, first of all, do some free hand workout to bring your body weight under control. You can go for brisk walk, jogging and make sure to have a balanced diet, say the Reformer Pilates experts in Adelaide.

Lack of Determination and Irregularity

If you are not determined, you can’t stick to it till the end. Most of the people become irregular and leave it at the middle of the journey. It would not only waste your money and time, your body would also be affected very badly.

Rubbish Bins Are A Necessity Not A Luxury

You will find rubbish bins in both businesses and homes as they are a necessity neither can do without and then rubbish removal Northern Beaches Sydney will collect it. Since they are a common element found in both business and home we often do not put much thought into the process when selecting the proper trash receptacle.

Quite naturally the key elements for either use are functionality, durability and environmentally friendliness. At any local hardware or do it yourself center there are loads of choices to choose from.

Those standard over-sized bins are a dime a dozen however you may be in the market for a more aesthetically pleasing option. Believe it or not it is possible to find a rubbish bin that combines both fashion and function. And at the same time takes into account environmental standards.

You’ll want to invest in a garbage bin that is for use indoors or specifically for outdoors. Rubbish bins do not come particularly cheap so you’ll want to invest in one that appeals to the overall look of the area.

By spending top dollar you will be able to realize years of use. Purchasing the cheapest option often means you get a less superior product. You’ll find during your research just how far trash cans have come from their original origins.

Each home and business requires different specifications of this all important appliance and manufacturers are up to the task of providing the consumer with the best possible products.

User friendly, stylish and efficient are now common terms in the rubbish bin industry.

In order for your bin to be user friendly it should be easy to maintain and clean. Most certainly you will alleviate any unwanted odors by keeping the trash receptacle clean.

If you are utilizing your rubbish bin in a commercial setting then make sure the person or persons responsible for emptying and cleaning it has been trained properly. This will help alleviate any potential injuries when working with a large garbage can that requires lifting.

If you purchase a cheaply constructed rubbish bin you are only throwing money down the drain. It will require replacing at regular intervals. You run the risk of investing in an appliance that does not meet manufacturer specifications. This is not a smart way to run a successful business or efficient home kitchen.

Most business owners don’t think twice about maintaining costly office equipment and rare is the housewife that does not take into account maintaining the efficiency of necessary household appliances. This same consideration and attention to detail should be given to our rubbish collection bins and trash receptacles. They are an investment as well.

Why spend your money on something that is not very attractive since it is used everyday. Modern day trash cans offer many options for any budget. They are now manufactured in lighter materials which are stackable. Many even come in designer colors meant to integrate into the surroundings without looking like the clunky bins of the past.

People do react to their surroundings even if a rubbish bin is the main focal point. By choosing a receptacle that is functional and appealing you speak volumes about how you view your business.

If you do not have time to visit your local shop you can also purchase a modern sanitation solution through an online company or through a catalog. Stay within a budget that allows you to take advantage of the perfect system that suits you.

By doing your homework you are sure to find just the right rubbish bin solution for your home or business. By combining aesthetic and design your trash receptacle will last for years to come.

Rubbish bins [http://rubbishbins.org/] are key trash collection receptacles that support organization in the home and business as well as sorting and processing recyclable materials. To learn more about bins and bin systems and how they can be used in every area of your life visit [http://rubbishbins.org/].

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Outdoor Team Building Activities At The Corporate Location Or Offsite

Our fine corporate picnic Sydney dining experiences let you choose the view and stay all day as you connect with great company and the pure joy of fresh food in Sydney’s beautiful harbourside playground. Warm temperatures mean it is time to get outside, something many of us cannot do during the workday. We sneak out during our lunch breaks only to regret having to return to the office when it is time for the remainder of our shift. Employers often schedule a company barbecue or picnic during the summer time, and including some outdoor team building activities in the event allows us to bond with co-workers while learning valuable lessons.

If management is unable to develop a team building program on its own, team building companies are there to provide assistance. Companies like XPEERience group offer a variety of outdoor team building activities that can be tailored to different locations. Whether the company holds the team building games in its parking lot or a nearby recreational field, the event should be excellent. The idea is to get the group into the fresh air and allow everyone to have fun by participating in activities that enhance communication and collaboration skills.

Outdoor team building activities are designed for people of all skill levels. Some are more strenuous than others so companies should include a combination of events in the itinerary. An outdoor tournament that includes soccer, lacrosse, football, and dodgeball will get the sporting types involved. Drumming events are designed for the more sedentary participants, though everyone should enjoy this process of creation, performance, and rhythmic synchronization.

Fans of television reality shows will love a team building program that mimics Survivor or The Amazing Race. In the Survivor-style game, teams compete against each other in six activities. The team who can endure the challenges and outwit its opponents will emerge victorious. This is easier said than done because surprise challenges await each team in its quest. In The Amazing Race-based outdoor team building activities, teams find clues and complete various physical challenges while navigating through an area to reach the finish line.

When workers really need a break, they may travel to engage in outdoor team building. Toronto is one place they can consider visiting. This city is beautiful during the summer and Polson Pier just happens to be the home of a 200,000 square foot facility designed for team building events.

Attendees will have an excellent view of Toronto and the waterfront and they can play team building games like volleyball, beach soccer, and the amusing human foosball. When it is time to go indoors at night, they do not have to travel far to enjoy a catered meal at the 50,000 square foot inside facility. During their free time, participants can explore everything that Toronto has to offer.

Outdoor team building activities held onsite, nearby, or in a distant location are designed to help a team be more cohesive in the work environment. Groups have loads of fun while they are playing team building games and at the same time, they develop important skills that translate to improved workplace productivity. If a company holds a summer event for staff, including corporate team building activities should prove beneficial.

Important Surfing Knowledge

There is a surf contest for a cause in which everyone can join and experience it. There’s no doubt about it. Surfing is one of the most exciting and exhilarating sports on the planet. Any time you’re moving in unison with one of nature’s forces, there’s going to be something thrilling about it. One of the extra bonuses about surfing is that you will also join a family-like setting. There’s a special kind of bond between surfers that doesn’t exist in other sports. While all of this might sound great, there are some things you need to know prior to heading out to catch a few breaks. They won’t only make your time more enjoyable, but these simple tips might also save your life.

The first thing you need to do prior to surfing is assess your swimming ability. For instance, are you a casual swimmer that has only swam in pools and lakes? Or are you someone who has been swimming in the ocean often and is just now taking an interest in surfing? If it’s the latter, then you probably have a decent understanding of the strength of the ocean, as well as currents and riptides. If it’s the former, then you should seriously consider getting used to swimming in the ocean prior to surfing.

If you think you’re ready to begin surfing, make sure your board has a safety leash. This can help in many ways. One of those ways is in case you get stuck in a current and need to swim along the shore to get out of it. Having your board will help avoid fatigue. If you hit a rock or reef below the surface and go unconscious, having the board attached to your body will also help others spot you. This is also a good reason not to swim alone. Having a partner will always increase your odds of survival if something goes wrong. Watch out for the slow killer, which is the sun. Always wear sun block as well as a full body wetsuit if possible. If you’re like most surfers, you’re going to be out there for hours, not minutes. It’s important to be protected.

For more tips and technique advice on surfing, check out your local surfing magazine. If there is no local surfing magazine, you can always find one online.

Enjoy Best Skiing Holidays at Not So Expensive Rates

Generally speaking the Coast Mountains of British Columbia tend to get more snow, the climate is milder and they have fewer persistent avalanche problems that is the reason why I want to experience heli skiing Canada there. Skiing being one of the most expensive hobbies, one thing that most people would appreciate is getting offered some fine cheap ski holidays. Saving money is a thing that everybody likes to indulge into, though getting the exact deal that you might wish for might not be that easy a task. Although, with the Internet and a little effort on your own end, getting a deal very close to it might definitely be possible. Keeping few things in mind might definitely help you to narrow down your search and thus make sure that you end up having the best that you could afford without a lot of effort and frustration. To know few such things keep reading.

Consider the location or area:

My personal favorite for a holiday would be Austria, Italy or Germany, but then you are always free to chose yours. Considering the location and the area is one of the very important things to start with, when planning a holiday.

Don’t fall prey to hidden costs:

The hidden costs are the few things that you are bound to fall prey to if you are planning the holidays for the first time. Make sure you ask for all the things that you could think of, like the baggage cost, the cost of taking the ski’s with you on an airline or any extra charges of using the credit cards for payments. You are very prone to being stung by any of the mentioned hidden costs or any other similar charges if you do not get them cleared before hand.

Off season might sound best:

If you are considering cheap ski holidays, you better consider a skiing holiday that does not coincide with the new year or the Christmas holidays or any such rush period. Take off in an off season that people do not consider for skiing holidays on a normal basis, this could help you get better places to stay and better deals on the skiing holidays with some good off season discounts which for sure will be look well on your budget. Be strategic in choosing the dates for a holiday, and you might land with some massive discounts.

All-in package could sound better:

If you do not have a lot of experience in planning a skiing holiday, you might like to keep it simple and hassle free by choosing for some good all-in package deals. These deals might help you to keep your holiday hassle free and easy. Holidays are for fun and you might not like to spend a lot of time planning them and taking care of the budget.

When considering cheap ski holidays the best thing would be to consider the lesser known places and resorts for the simple reason that considering a place that is quite famous might not be the best thing for your budget. Just make sure you take care of the extras that you might not like to leave to the chances, other than that a package deal in an off season to a lesser known place might be the best thing for you, if you wish to have cheap ski holidays.

Ask The Right Questions Before You Book Your Wedding Reception

Think saying “I do” is going to be the most emotional moment in your wedding? Probably so, but putting down a deposit on your wedding venue could be a close runner-up. Iconic Crown is set alongside the Yarra River overlooking spectacular wedding reception venues Melbourne.

Reception costs consume almost half the budget for the wedding, which these days means you can expect to lay out almost $13,000, including food. And the venue you select can not only limit your choice of caterers or bakers, it’s sure to affect how much you spend to “cover up” its weak spots or accent its highlights. Most stressful of all, the popular venues book far in advance, forcing brides to make the big decision almost as soon as they set the date.

For that reason, the savvy venue-hunter wants to know what questions to ask before she walks in the door, much less signs the contract. Here are a few ideas:

Do you have a pre-set list of caterers I can use, or can I choose my own?

Some venues — high-end ones with their own catering staff, or small-town ones with little competition — require you to use the in-house caterers or choose from a small list of “approved” vendors. It can be difficult to get taste-tests or otherwise put this type of vendor through its paces. If you’re stuck with such a list, search high and low for brides who have “been there, done that” and can give you their honest opinions.

Any restrictions on decorations?

Many venues have them, but rules vary widely from place to place. Common restrictions include: no open flame (or no flame whatsoever), no tape or tacks on the walls, or no confetti. When linens are provided, some halls will prohibit the use of pins. Ask if the hall can provide any decorations themselves, especially around holidays. Useful centerpiece items such as hurricane lamps or Eiffel vases are not uncommon.

Can we bring our own liquor, is there a “corkage” fee, and do we need a license?

If the liquor’s to flow freely at your wedding, you’ll save an immense amount of moolah by bringing your own. But some venues prohibit this and require you to buy from them. Even worse is the venue that says “yes” to bringing your own alcohol, but charges you a mandatory “corkage fee” to serve it — which typically starts at an unbelievable $10 per bottle or more! You’ll want to be crystal-clear on the fine print regarding alcohol before you commit to a venue.

As for licensing, many states consider wedding receptions to be an “unlicensed social function,” meaning you don’t need one as long as you’re not charging anyone for the alcohol. But be sure to check your local regulations before moving ahead — and ask your venue if they know of any licensing requirements.

Is there a cake-cutting fee?

Some venues even limit your choice of bakers, but most don’t. A more common (and sneakier) tactic is to charge you a cake-cutting fee, which like corkage fees, can really add up — often at $1 per slice!

DIY Detective Work

These, of course, are only a few of the questions you’ll want to ask a prospective venue manager. A few more tips while you’re checking out the place:

– Bring a tape measure. Get the dimensions of the room, the tables, and the distance between any features that might impact your decor, like windows. How many outlets are there and where are they located? What kind of climate control is available to you?

– Check the kitchen. Does it look clean, roomy and suitable for your catering staff to work from?

– Check the hall itself. Where will you put the band, the cake table, the coffee service? Are there coat racks for your guests? Is a sound system available?

Check out the parking. Is it ample? Is it paved, or can it get muddy in the case of rain? Is there handicap access?

One final thing to get clear before you autograph that contract is your venue’s cancellation policy. But hopefully, with these helpful tips, you’ll have done enough homework to rest easy in your choice and not worry about having to cancel. Now that you’ve signed, take some time to sit back and relax … before you tackle the next task in that thick wedding planner!

Small Charities And Risk Management

Charity donation tax deduction reduces the amount of your taxes. The effective management of risk is an essential part of the responsibilities for trustees of charities and is often overlooked by those responsible for managing the smaller charity.

Risk is an event or action that may adversely affect an organisation’s ability to survive or compete in its market or to maintain its financial stability or its positive public image and the overall quality of its people and services. Risk can also arise from a failure to exploit opportunities or from a breakdown in operational controls and procedures.

The requirement to manage risk

For registered charities the Charities SORP (Statement of Recommended Practice) sets out the reporting requirements for trustees on the:

  1. identification of major risks
  2. the review of risks
  3. the systems or procedures established to manage risk

It is therefore essential for all charities that they have a sound risk management policy

The role of the trustees

The responsibility for the management and control of a charity rests with the board of trustees. The board’s involvement in the key aspects of the risk management process is essential. Trustees do not have to undertake each aspect of the process themselves. Their level of involvement should be such that the trustees can make the required statement on risk management in the statutory annual report with reasonable confidence.

Sector Group

The management of risk will involve the following key steps:

  1. establishing the risk policy
  2. identifying risk
  3. assessing risk
  4. evaluating and implementing what action needs to be taken
  5. reviewing and establishing a system of periodic monitoring and assessment

Although these elements can be used as ‘steps’ or ‘stages’, it is likely that trustees will need to revisit each stage as their knowledge of the charity’s risk profile increases.

Any risk management policy will need to be:

  1. comprehensive
  2. continuous
  3. integrated
  4. suitable and proportional

Establish risk policy

Risk is an inherent feature of all activity and may arise from inaction as well as new initiatives. Charities will have differing exposures to risk arising from their activities and will have different capacities to tolerate or absorb risk. A charity with sound reserves could perhaps embark on a new project with a higher risk profile than, say, a charity facing solvency difficulties.

The risk policy process will include a consideration of the following:

  1. the charity’s objectives, philosophy and strategy;
  2. the nature and scale of the charity’s activities;the success factors that need to be achieved;
  3. external factors that might affect the charity such as legislation and regulation, and the charity’s  reputation with its major funders and supporters;
  4. past mistakes and problems that the charity has faced;
  5. the operating structure – e.g. use of branches, subsidiary companies or joint ventures;
  6. comparison with other charities working in the same area or of similar size; and
  7. checklists of risk factors prepared by other charities or other organisations.

It is essential that for this process to work, trustees and executive management need to be committed to it. Trustees will need to consult widely with key managers and staff, and may even involve supporters and beneficiaries where reputational risk or provision of service to beneficiaries is being considered.

Identify risks

The identification of risk should be integral to the strategic planning and budget setting process. Key questions will include:

  1. What external and operational risks may prevent our charity from achieving its core objectives?
  2. What might happen and what would the consequences be for us?
  3. What are the steps we can take to mitigate or reduce those risks?

External risks generally fall into one or more of the following categories:

  1. Political
  2. Economic
  3. Social
  4. Environmental
  5. Technological
  6. Legal

and tend to be outside the control of the charity.

Internal risks arise from the day to day operation of the charity and the identification of these will require consideration of all aspects of the charity’s operational activities.

This is not the only way of categorising risks and the following alternative classification could for example be used:

  1. Governance risks – e.g. inappropriate organisational structure, difficulties recruiting trustees with relevant skills, conflict of interest;
  2. Operational risks – e.g. service quality and development, contract pricing, employment issues; health and safety issues; fraud and misappropriation; loss of key staff;
  3. Financial risks – e.g. accuracy and timeliness of financial information, adequacy of reserves and cash flow, diversity of income sources, investment management;
  4. External risks – e.g. public perception and adverse publicity, demographic changes, government policy;
  5. Compliance with law and regulation – e.g. breach of trust law, employment law, and regulative requirements of particular activities such as fund-raising or the running of care facilities. Although the process of risk identification should be undertaken with care, the analysis will inherently contain some subjective judgements and no process is likely to be capable of identifying all possible risks that may arise. The process can only provide reasonable (not absolute) assurance to trustees that all relevant risks have been identified.

Assessing risks

The first stage of the assessment process is to prioritise risks using impact analysis so that the significance of a risk is measured against the likelihood of that risk actually arising. Significance should be considered in both financial and reputational terms. Risks can be prioritised so that those with high significance and high probability receive primary attention. Risks with high significance and low probability scores give rise to the need for contingency planning whereas risks with low significance but high probability scoring can often be addressed by improvements to internal control procedures.

All risks have to be considered in the light of the charities ‘risk threshold’ the setting of which will be influenced by the level of reserves, the projected surpluses etc.

Evaluating and implementing the action required

Where major risks are identified the trustees will need to ensure that appropriate action is taken to ensure that these are mitigated. This review should include establishing the adequacy of controls already in place. For each of the major risks identified, trustees will need to consider any additional action that needs to be taken to mitigate the risk, either by lessening the likelihood of the event occurring, or lessening its impact if it does.

There are four basic strategies that can be applied to an identified risk:

  1. transferring the financial consequences to third parties or sharing it (e.g. insurance, outsourcing);
  2. avoiding the activity giving rise to the risk completely (e.g. a potential grant or contract not taken up);
  3. management or mitigation of risk; or
  4. accepting it (e.g. assessing it as an inherent risk that cannot be avoided if the activity is to continue).

Risk mitigation is aimed at reducing the ‘gross level’ of risk identified to a ‘net level’ of risk that remains after appropriate action is taken. This identification of ‘gross risk’, the control procedures put in place to mitigate the risk, and the identification of the residual or ‘net risk’ can be recorded in a risk register (see pro forma below). Trustees need to form a view as to the acceptability of the residual or ‘net risk’ that remains after mitigation. It is possible that the process may also identify areas where the current control processes are disproportionately costly or onerous to the risks they seek to address.

Risk Review

It can be helpful to use a scoring system to assess which risks need further work. Severity of impact could be scored from 1 (least serious) to 5 (most serious) and similarly the likelihood of occurrence could be scored from 1 (remote) to 5 (very likely). The impact score is usually multiplied by the score for likelihood and the product of the scores used to rank those risks that the trustees regard as most serious.

Risks other than high likelihood/high impact should not be ignored. Those with high potential severity of impact but low likelihood of occurrence need to be kept under review, possibly annually, and will need arrangements in place to ensure that they can be addressed should they arise. Similarly, events with low severity but with a high likelihood of occurrence may become gradual drains on a charity’s finances or reputation. Those risks with both low severity and low likelihood of occurrence are unlikely to merit significant attention and effort might be better focused elsewhere.

Risk management extends beyond simply setting out systems and procedures. The process needs to be dynamic to ensure new risks are addressed as they arise and also cyclical to establish how previously identified risks may have changed. For all but the larger and more complex charities, annual monitoring is likely to be sufficient when supplemented by update reports and assessment of new activities or proposed projects.

Conclusion

A charity that has identified the major risks it faces, and established systems to mitigate such risks, will be able to make a positive statement on risk in its trustees’ Annual Report. This will help to demonstrate the charity’s accountability to its stakeholders (beneficiaries, donors and other funders, employees, and the general public). An effective risk management strategy can help ensure the charity’s aims are achieved more effectively and significant risks are known and monitored, enabling trustees to improve forward planning.

Nigel SG Harper Chartered Accountant

Management Consultancy Services Limited are experienced providers of advice and support for the smaller business. A full range of accounting and management consultancy services are available together with a without obligation, free initial consultation.

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